Given the universal constraints both material and physical, regardless of the consensus method, it is not possible to ensure universal consensus on billions of transactions by polling all nodes of the network. Currently, in all blockchain protocols each node stores the entire state (account balances, contract code and storage, etc.) and processes all transactions. This provides a large amount of security, but greatly limits scalability. In large part because of this, Bitcoin is limited to ~3–7 transactions per second, Ethereum to 7–15, etc.
Along with the above problem, the functioning of current distributed networks (P2P) is such that it is not possible to guarantee the freshness (consistency) of data on an asynchronous network, unless the network is slowed down excessively by the calculation of the nonce of the block (PoW), as is the case with the Bitcoin network.
To solve this, Uniris Team is introducing ARCH Consensus which is the brain behind Uniris Blockchain. Arch Consensus is a new mechanism, where only a small subset of nodes verifies each transaction. As long as there are sufficiently many nodes verifying each transaction the system is still highly secure, but a sufficiently small percentage of the total validator set so that the system can process many transactions in parallel to greatly increase a blockchain's total throughput. Hence the ARCH Consensus is based on Hypergeometric Distribution Laws which, from an unpredictable election and a formal consensus of nodes, makes it possible to obtain with certainty (99.9999999%) the same answer by querying 197 nodes as would be obtained by querying 100,000. In other words, this mathematical law makes it possible to obtain an universal consensus from a small part of the nodes. The 197 nodes should then have an Atomic Commitment for the transaction validation i.e have the same responses for the transaction validation. This property thus enters into the Heuristics concept widely used on the whole network.
Note: Atomic Commitment is the form of "absolute" consensus that implies 100% concordant responses for the acceptance or refusal of the transaction validation.
The Uniris network is based on three properties:
Security: Based on the ARCH consensus, each transaction is validated atomically.
Data consistency: Based on heuristic storage algorithms that guarantee access to the latest write but also maximum data availability. (discussed in the next articles)
Fault tolerance: Based on heuristic validation algorithms that allow nodes to work independently even in the event of a network disaster. (discussed in the next articles)
ARCH: Atomic Rotating Commitment Heuristic is the underlying Consensus mechanism of Uniris Blockchain Technology and is a new generation of universal consensus thats allows Atomic Commitment by a Heuristic Rotating Election of a tiny set of validation nodes instead of the whole network. where,
- Atomic Commitment is the form of "absolute" consensus that implies 100% concordant responses for the acceptance or refusal of the transaction validation.
- Heuristics is the set of algorithms, softwares and parameters that manage the entire network, allowing the network to elect in a decentralized and coordinated way the nodes in charge of validating and storing transactions chains. They are specifically used to solve the NP-complete problems in scalability & security and provide a fast and simplified solution.
- Rotating, the network being fully distributed (no central or privileged role), the nodes elected for each operation are constantly rotating so that no node can predict which nodes will be elected until the transaction arrives.
You mentioned ARCH, Heuristics, Hypergeometric Distribution, Atomic Commitment. I am a newbie and what is this?
When a transaction is sent to the P2P Network of 100,000 nodes (even at 90% malicious nodes and 10% good nodes), instead of asking all the 100,000 nodes to validate the transaction, ask 197 nodes that are unpredictable and randomly selected and all the 197 nodes should have the same responses for the acceptance or refusal of the transaction validation. Hypergeometric Laws ensures that atleast 1 out of the 197 nodes selected will be a good node (even at 90% malicious nodes and 10% good nodes). Even if atleast 1 node has a different response then the transaction is further investigated.
Thereby combining Randomness, Hypergeometric Laws, Atomic Commitment & Heuristics.